lunes, 27 de febrero de 2012


Cubism was an artistic movement that was born in France between 1907 and 1914. Pablo Ruiz Picasso was the first artist who uses this style. The term “cubism” was created by Louis Vaxcelles because he said that this style was composed of “little cubes”, and it started call cubism. 
Cubism is considered the first avant-garde because broke with renaissance at beginning of twentieth century. Perspective disappears in cubism and start painting geometric forms. Those works represents all sides of an object in the same plane, so it’s more difficult to see clearly a person or an animal. Now there is no single point of view, so sensation of distance disappears. Painters deleted details and used darker colors than they used in impressionism. 
Picasso and Braque founded cubism, but also there were other painters who were famous because of this kind of art. Like Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger and André Lhote.

Pablo Picasso: Guernica. Museo Reina Sofía (Madrid)

Pablo Picasso: The Three Musicians (1921). Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Author: Pablo Ruiz Morales

sábado, 25 de febrero de 2012

Pop Art

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and in the United States. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it.

Pop art is aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal  elements of any given culture, most often through the use of irony. It is also associated with the artists use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques.

Much of pop art is considered incongruent, as the conceptual practices that are often used make it difficult for some to readily comprehend. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of Postmodern Art themselves. 

Pop art often takes as its imagery that which is currently in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, like in the Campbell's Soup Cans labels, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the shipping carton containing retail items has been used as subject matter in pop art.

Andy Warhol: Marilyn Monroe (1962)

Roy Lichstenstein: Whaam! (1963)

Author: Irene Serrano Menéndez (based on Wikipedia article)

sábado, 18 de febrero de 2012


Pointillism is a painting method of placing dots on the painting surface to achieve various affects.

The dots can be placed singly, in rows, or randomly. The dots can also be placed by themselves or overlapping. You can also mix up the options.

The dots used can also vary in size. They can be uniform in size, or they also can be varied in the same painting.

There are a couple of ways to achieve the larger dots:

  • One is to paint with round sponge tips by dipping them in the paint and then dabbing them on to the painting surface. To have the sponges last longer, wet them first and squeeze out the excess water, before dipping them in the paint. Be sure to clean them afterwords, according to the type paint that was used; water for watercolor paints, soap and water for acrylics.

  • A second way, is using Sponge Paint Markers. The paint is already in the bottle, ready to use.

Georges Pierre Seurat was a French Post-Impressionist painter and draftsman. He is noted for his innovative use of drawing media and for devising a technique of painting known as pointillism.

Georges Seurat: 'Sunday afternoon on the Island of Grand Jatte' (1886), Art Institute of Chicago
Georges Seurat: 'La Parade' (detail)

Author: Daniel Meré (3º ESO)


Dadaism was born in Germany and in Switzerland during the First World War and then it was taken to Paris.

It wasn’t an artistic movement as such, it was an attitude that expressed despair and disgust. They fought against the established order, characterized by a greedy society longing for power.  Dadaists tried to end up with any concept of art, literature or poetry from the past. They supported a new ideology, a new way of living.

Dadaists experienced different styles. Their works would be later developed by the Surrealist Movement. Some important painters were Johannes Theodor Baargeld and Hans Richter.

Hans Richter: Visionary Portrait (1917)

R. Mott: Urinary (1917)

Author: Pablo Fernández Suárez


Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.  The themes are associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city.

It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The Futurism practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture and even gastronomy.

Giacomo Balla: 'Abstract Speed+Sound' (1914), Guggenheim Collection
Carlo Carrá: 'Horse and rider' (1912)

Author: Wikipedia (copied by Sara Menéndez García)

Cool Art

A term that has been applied to various types of abstract art characterized by such qualities as calculation, detachment, and impersonality. 

Usually the art referred to is geometrical, and often it is made up of repetitive structures or units. The term was evidently first used in print by the critic Irving Sandler in 1965 (in an article in 'Art in America'), but the term 'Cool School' had been used a year earlier (in an article in 'Artforum' by P. Leider). 

The art historian Barbara Rose has referred to the term as a synonym for Minimal Art, which she describes as 'an art whose blank, neutral, mechanical impersonality contrasts so violently with the romantic, biographical Abstract Expressionist style which preceded it that spectators are chilled by its apparent lack of feeling or content'.
Polly Apfelbaum: Bubbles (2000)

Author: Ian Chilvers & John Glaves-Smith ('A dictionary of modern and contemporary art', copied by Clara Rodríguez Fernández)

Op Art

Op art, also known as optical art, is a style of visual art that makes use of optical illusions.

Optical art is a method of painting concerning the interaction between illusion and picture plane, between understanding and seeing. Op art works are abstract, with many pieces made in only black and white. 

When the viewer looks at them, the impression is given of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or alternatively, of swelling or warping.

Some op art artists are: Josef Albers, Richard Allen, Getulio Alviani, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Tony DeLap, etc

Bridget Riley: 'Movement in squares' (1961)

Richard Anuszkiewicz: 'Intrinsic Harmony' (1965)

Author: Wikipedia (copied by Jaime Torner Amigo)


Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
Expressionism is art that is more associated with emotion or feeling than with literal interpretation of a subject.

Expressionistic art uses vivid colours, distortion two-dimensional subjects that lack perspective.

Edvard Munch: 'The scream' (1893), Munch Museum Oslo
George Grosz: 'Republican automatons' (1920), Museum of Modern Art New York City

Author: Alberto Sáez Menéndez (3º ESO)

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism is a modern art movement that flowered in America after the Second World War and held sway until the dawn of Pop Art in the 1960's. With this movement New York replaced Paris as the center of the art world.

Abstract Expressionism has its roots in other earlier 20th century art movements such as Cubism and Surrealism that promoted abstraction rather than representation. The psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung provided the intellectual context in this quest for new subject matter.

The major players in Abstract Expression were Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Clyfford Still, Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Philip Guston, Lee Krasner, Ad Reinhardt and sculptor David Smith.

The Abstract Expressionists goal was a raw and impulsive art. What mattered were the qualities of the paint itself and the act of painting itself.
Jackson Pollock: 'Number 8' (1949), Neuberger Museum, State University of New York

Marc Rothko: 'Untitled' (violet, black, orange, yellow over white and red), Guggenheim Museum New York City

Author: (copied by Silvia Martín Martínez)


Surrealism is an artistic movement, born in France after the First World War. André Breton defined it in his manifesto of 1924. It tends to represent, abandoning any stylistic concerns, the inner life of the subconscious, the work of instinct that develops outside the bounds of reason. The surreal art is immediate, unreflective and is stripped of any reference to reality.

Surrealism took from Dadaism some photography and cinematography techniques as the manufacture of objects. Extended the principle to assemblage collage of incongruous objects as visible in the poems of Max Ernst. The latter invented frottage (drawings composed of rough surfaces rubbing against the paper or canvas) and applied in large painted works such as Natural History in Paris in 1926.

Other new activities created by Surrealism was called Exquisite Corpse, in which artists drew the different parts of a figure without seeing what he had done before passing the folded paper. The resulting creature could inspire Miró.


Salvador Dalí: 'The persistence of memory' (1931), Museum of Modern Art New York CIty
(in Spanish: 'Los relojes blandos')

Max Ernst: 'Triumph of Surrealism' (1937), private collection

Author: María Amo Alonso (3º ESO)


Neoplasticism is the belief that art should not be the reproduction of real objects, but the expression of the absolutes of life. To the artists way of thinking, the only absolutes of life were vertical and horizontal lines and the primary colors. To this end neoplasticisists only used planar elements and the colours red, yellow and blue.  The neoplastic movement happened in the 1910's and the two main painters of this movement were Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg.

Piet Mondrian: 'Composition II in Red, Blue and Yellow' (1930)

Theo Van Doesburt: 'Composition VII (The Three Graces)' (1917), Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Saint Louis (Missouri)

Author: (copied by Miriam Moro Ruisánchez)


Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for 'the wild beasts'), a group of early twentieth-century Modern Artists whose works emphasized pictorial qualities and strong colour over the representational or realistic values retained by ImpressionismFauvism can be seen as a mode of Expressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were Henri Matisse and André Derain. 
André Derain, Charing Cross Bridge, London, 1906, National Gallery of Art,Washington, DC.

Author: Wikipedia (copied by María Fernández Iglesias)